The total hydrodeoxygenation of carbohydrate-derived molecules to alkanes, a key reaction in the production of biofuel, was reviewed from the aspect of catalysis. Noble metals (or Ni) and acid are the main components of the catalysts, and group 6 or 7 metals such as Re are sometimes added as modifiers of the noble metal. The main reaction route is acid-catalyzed dehydration plus metal-catalyzed hydrogenation, and in some systems metal-catalyzed direct C-O dissociation is involved. The appropriate active metal, acid strength, and reaction conditions depend strongly on the reactivity of the substrate. Reactions that use Pt or Pd catalysts supported on Nb-based acids or relatively weak acids are suitable for furanic substrates. Carbohydrates themselves and sugar alcohols undergo C-C dissociation easily. The systems that use metal-catalyzed direct C-O dissociations can give a higher yield of the corresponding alkane from carbohydrates and sugar alcohols.