Characterization of acoustic streaming in water and aluminum melt during ultrasonic irradiation

Takuya Yamamoto, Kazuki Kubo, Sergey V. Komarov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


It is well known that ultrasonic cavitation causes a steady flow termed acoustic streaming. In the present study, the velocity of acoustic streaming in water and molten aluminum is measured. The method is based on the measurement of oscillation frequency of Karman vortices around a cylinder immersed into liquid. For the case of acoustic streaming in molten metal, such measurements were performed for the first time. Four types of experiments were conducted in the present study: (1) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurement in a water bath to measure the acoustic streaming velocity visually, (2) frequency measurement of Karman vortices generated around a cylinder in water, and (3) in aluminum melt, and (4) cavitation intensity measurements in molten aluminum. Based on the measurement results (1) and (2), the Strouhal number for acoustic streaming was determined. Then, using the same Strouhal number and measuring oscillation frequency of Karman vortices in aluminum melt, the acoustic streaming velocity was measured. The velocity of acoustic streaming was found to be independent of amplitude of sonotrode tip oscillation both in water and aluminum melt. This can be explained by the effect of acoustic shielding and liquid density.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105381
JournalUltrasonics Sonochemistry
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Mar


  • Acoustic cavitation
  • Acoustic streaming
  • Aluminum melt
  • Karman vortex
  • Ultrasound irradiation
  • Vortex shedding frequency


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