Characterization of deposited and nitrogen-implanted titanium films

J. J. Wang, T. Yamamura, S. Yamamoto, M. Yoshikawa, Y. Fujino, Y. Kasukabe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Deposited Ti films and TiN films formed by nitrogen-implantation were investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Titanium films in the thickness of 100 nm were deposited by an electron beam heating method onto thermally cleaned NaCl(001) surfaces held at room temperature under ultra-high vacuum. In the deposited Ti films, there coexist mainly (03 · 5)-oriented hcp-Ti and (110)-oriented TiHx, crystallites: the hydrogen atoms are originally contained in NaCl substrates. The (03 · 5)-oriented hcp-Ti grows inheriting the fourfold symmetry of the square atomic arrangement of TiHx grown in the early deposition stage. On the other hand, the (110)-oriented TiH x nucleates and grows naturally inheriting the rectangle atomic arrangement of the (03 · 5)-oriented hcp-Ti to form the band-like region. The deposited Ti films were implanted by N2 + ions with 62 keV in the 400 kV analytical high resolution TEM combined with ion accelerators. In the N-implanted Ti film, the (001)-oriented TiNy and (110)-oriented TiNy crystallites are formed outside and inside the band-like regions, respectively. The (110)-oriented TiNy; is formed by nitriding the (110)-oriented TiHx in the as-deposited Ti film, whereas the (001)-oriented TiNy, is epitaxially formed by the transformation of the (03 · 5)-oriented hcp-Ti to (001)-oriented fcc-Ti, partially inheriting the atomic arrangement of the square and/or the octahedron of the hcp-Ti, accompanied by the occupation of O-sites of the fcc-Ti sublattice by N atoms. In these transformations, the inheritances of the local atomic arrangement of Ti sublattices play a prominent role in the epitaxial fcc-hcp and hcp-fcc formations of the Ti sublattices. The epitaxial formation mechanisms of deposited Ti films and N-implanted Ti films are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)476-483
Number of pages8
Journale-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Dec 17


  • Deposited Ti films
  • Fcc-hcp transformation
  • In-situ TEM
  • Ion-implantation
  • TiN


Dive into the research topics of 'Characterization of deposited and nitrogen-implanted titanium films'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this