Scanning electrochemical microscopy allows for the detection and mapping of redox species near sample surfaces. In this paper, studies on the electrochemical characterization of embryos, embryoid bodies, and multicellular spheroids are reviewed. The mass-transfer rate on a spherical sample was evaluated based on spherical diffusion theory to study respiration activity and enzymatic activities including alkaline phosphatase and beta-galactosidase. The respiration rate of a single embryo has been applied for monitoring the developmental process and characterization of the embryo quality of individual samples, by combining time-laps microscopic observation and high-throughput gene-expression analysis. The respiration and alkaline phosphatase activities of individual embryoid body samples have been measured to evaluate the developmental potentials of individual samples. Electrochemically monitored beta galactosidase activity was applied to characterize the senescence of a multi-cellular spheroid.
- Alkaline phosphatase
- ES cell
- Scanning electrochemical microscopy