Chemical bonding at room temperature via surface activation to fabricate low-resistance GaAs/Si heterointerfaces

Yutaka Ohno, Jianbo Liang, Naoteru Shigekawa, Hideto Yoshida, Seiji Takeda, Reina Miyagawa, Yasuo Shimizu, Yasuyoshi Nagai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


Bonding mechanism at room temperature (RT) in GaAs/Si heterointerfaces fabricated by surface-activated bonding (SAB) is examined using cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with low-temperature focused ion beam and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. In the bonding process at RT, atomic intermixing at the interfaces, presumably due to the transient enhanced diffusion assisted by the point defects introduced in the surface activation process, is confirmed. The defect-assisted atomic diffusion at the interfaces, as well as the formation of atomically clean and activated surfaces, would be the key concept of SAB, by which we can create tough heterointerfaces at RT. Meanwhile, the defects on the activated surfaces would degrade the interface resistance. The degraded properties can be recovered by an appropriate annealing after the SAB processes, although the atomistic structure around the heterointerfaces would be modified during the annealing. By controlling SAB and subsequent annealing conditions, we can obtain low-resistance heterointerfaces via the optimization of the trade-off relationship between the chemical bonding strength and the electronic properties, determined by the activated surfaces before bonding.

Original languageEnglish
Article number146610
JournalApplied Surface Science
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Sept 30


  • Heterointerfaces
  • Low-temperature direct wafer bonding
  • Low-temperature focused ion beam
  • Scanning transmission electron microscopy
  • Surface activation


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