Cis-element architecture of Nrf2–sMaf heterodimer binding sites and its relation to diseases

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46 Citations (Scopus)


Cellular detoxication is essential for health because it provides protection against various chemicals and xenobiotics. The KEAP1–NRF2 system is important for cellular defense against oxidative and electrophilic stresses as NRF2 activates the transcription of an array of cytoprotective genes, including drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes, in a stress-dependent manner. The CNC family of transcription factors, including NRF2, form heterodimers with small Maf (sMaf) proteins and bind to consensus DNA sequences that have been referred to as antioxidant response element, electrophile response element, or NF-E2-binding element. These sequences are now collectively called CNC–sMaf binding element (CsMBE). In addition to forming a heterodimer with CNC proteins, sMaf proteins can form homodimers and recognize regulatory motifs called Maf recognition element (MARE). Although the CsMBE sequence substantially overlaps with that of MARE, the sequences differ. NRF2 selectively recognizes CsMBE, which is critical for cytoprotection. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing and population-scale genome analysis provide new insights into the transcriptional regulation involved in the stress response. The integration of a genome-wide map of NRF2 occupancy with disease-susceptibility loci reveals the associations between polymorphisms in CsMBE and disease risk, information useful for the personalized medicine of the future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)275-285
Number of pages11
JournalArchives of Pharmacal Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Mar 1


  • ARE/EpRE
  • CsMBE
  • KEAP1
  • NRF2


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