Classification of turbulent jets in a T-junction area with a 90-deg bend upstream

Seyed Mohammad Hosseini, Kazuhisa Yuki, Hidetoshi Hashizume

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

66 Citations (Scopus)


Many nuclear power plants report high cycle thermal fatigue in their cooling system, which is caused by temperature fluctuation in a non-isothermal mixing area. One of these areas is the T-junction, in which fluids of various temperatures and velocities blend. The objective of this research is to classify the turbulent jet mechanics in order to examine the flow-field structure under various operating conditions. Furthermore, this research discovers the optimum operating conditions of the mixing tee in this piping system. An experimental model, including the T-junction with a 90-deg bend upstream, is operated to analyze this mixing phenomenon based on the real operation design of the Phenix reactor. The temperature and velocity data show that a 90-deg bend has a strong effect on the fluid mixing mechanism and the momentum ratio between the main velocity and the branch velocity of the T-junction, which could be an important parameter for the classification of the fluid mixing mechanism. By comparing their mean velocity distributions, velocity fluctuations, and time-series data, the behavior of the branch jet is categorized into four types of turbulent jets; sorted from the highest to the lowest momentum ratios, the jets are categorized as follows: the wall jet, the re-attached jet, the turn jet, and the impinging jet. Ultimately, the momentum ration of the turn jet was selected as the optimum operating condition because it has the lowest velocity and the lowest temperature fluctuations near the wall of the mixing tee.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2444-2454
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
Issue number9-10
Publication statusPublished - 2008 May


  • Piping system
  • PIV
  • T-junction
  • Turbulent jet


Dive into the research topics of 'Classification of turbulent jets in a T-junction area with a 90-deg bend upstream'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this