Clinical characteristics of insulin resistance syndromes: A nationwide survey in Japan

Takehito Takeuchi, Yasushi Ishigaki, Yushi Hirota, Yutaka Hasegawa, Tohru Yorifuji, Hiroko Kadowaki, Takashi Akamizu, Wataru Ogawa, Hideki Katagiri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


Aims/Introduction: Insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) of type A or B is triggered by gene abnormalities of or autoantibodies to the insulin receptor, respectively. Rabson–Mendenhall/Donohue syndrome is also caused by defects of the insulin receptor gene (INSR), but is more serious than type A IRS. Here, we carried out a nationwide survey of these syndromes in Japan. Materials and Methods: We sent questionnaires to a total of 1,957 academic councilors or responsible individuals at certified facilities of the Japan Diabetes Society, as well as at the department pediatrics or neonatology in medical centers with >300 beds. Results: We received 904 responses with information on 23, 30 and 10 cases of type A or B IRS and Rabson–Mendenhall/Donohue syndrome, respectively. Eight cases with type A IRS-like clinical features, but without an abnormality of INSR, were tentatively designated type X IRS, with five of these cases testing positive for PIK3R1 mutations. Fasting serum insulin levels at diagnosis (mean ± standard deviation) were 132.0 ± 112.4, 1122.1 ± 3292.5, 2895.5 ± 3181.5 and 145.0 ± 141.4 μU/mL for type A IRS, type B IRS, Rabson–Mendenhall/Donohue syndrome and type X IRS, respectively. Type A and type X IRS, as well as Rabson–Mendenhall/Donohue syndrome were associated with low birthweight. Type B IRS was diagnosed most frequently in older individuals, and was often associated with concurrent autoimmune conditions and hypoglycemia. Conclusions: Information yielded by this first nationwide survey should provide epidemiological insight into these rare conditions and inform better healthcare for affected patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)603-616
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Diabetes Investigation
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2020 May 1


  • Insulin resistance syndrome
  • Nationwide survey


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