Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is a highly contagious pathogen and M. bovis-associated diseases, particularly pneumonia, occur predominantly as herd enzootics, causing considerable economic losses because of calf mortality, weight loss in surviving calves. In our previous studies, the programmed death-1 (PD-1)/ PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) were shown to be involved in the immunosuppression during chronic infectious diseases in cattle. In this study, the efficacy of dual blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway and PGE2 in M. bovis infection in vivo was investigated using anti-bovine PDL1 rat-bovine chimeric antibody, Boch4G12, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitor, meloxicam. The calves treated with Boch4G12 and meloxicam significantly enhanced M. bovis-specific IFN-γ response after the administration. On the other hand, IFN-γ response was not activated in the controls and cattle treated with meloxicam alone throughout the experimental period. Interestingly, bacterial loads in nasal discharge and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid among calves treated with Boch4G12 with or without meloxicam were significantly decreased. These results suggest that the combination of anti-PD-L1 antibody with a COX-2 inhibitor is a candidate for therapeutic applications in calves infected with M. bovis.
- COX-2 inhibitor
- Mycoplasma bovis