In higher plants, the self-incompatibility mechanism is important for inhibition of self-fertilization and facilitation of out-crossing. In Brassicaceae, the self-incompatibility response is mediated by allele-specific interaction of the stigma-localized S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) with the pollen coat-localized ligand (SCR/SP11). All self-incompatible Brassicaceae plants analyzed have been found to have the SRK and SCR/SP11 genes in the S-locus region. Although Arabidopsis thaliana is self-compatible, transformation with functional SRK-SCR genes from self-incompatible Arabidopsis species confers the self-incompatibility phenotype to A. thaliana. The allele-specific interaction between SRK and SCR activates the downstream signaling cascade of self-incompatibility. Yeast two-hybrid analysis with a kinase domain of SRK as bait and genetic analysis suggested several candidate components of self-incompatibility signaling in Brassica. Recently, A. thaliana genes orthologous to the identified genes for Brassica self-incompatibility signaling were evaluated by using a self-incompatible transgenic A. thaliana plant and these orthologous genes were found not to be involved in self-incompatibility signaling in the transgenic A. thaliana. In this review, we describe common and different aspects of S-locus genomic regions and self-incompatibility signaling between Brassica and Arabidopsis.