Comparison of liquefaction behavior of granular material under SH- and Love-wave strain conditions by 3D DEM

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7 Citations (Scopus)


In the study of liquefaction behavior associated with seismic loading conditions, it is often assumed that liquefaction occurs owing to the upward propagation of shear waves, despite evidence that liquefaction damage may result from or be aggravated by horizontally propagating surface waves. In this study, a series of numerical tests, based on the three-dimensional discrete element method, is performed to examine the liquefaction behavior of granular materials under Love-wave strain conditions. The response of granular packings under horizontally polarized shear- (SH-) and Love-wave strain conditions is discussed at both macro- and microscales. The simulation results indicate that, at the macroscale, the effective stress reduction ratio increases more rapidly under Love-wave strain conditions than under SH-wave strain conditions. Based on the concept of energy, the granular materials under Love-wave strain conditions can be considered more vulnerable to liquefaction than those under SH-wave strain conditions. Microscale analysis indicates the spatial rotation of the dominant direction of backbone force-chains under Love-wave strain conditions. In addition, focus here is placed on the coordination number, which represents the average contact number per particle. The difference in the degradation speed of the skeleton structure of the granular packings between the SH- and Love-wave strain conditions may not appear until the coordination number has decreased to a critical value of around 4. After the coordination number has approached approximately 3, the granular packings become unstable and soon liquefy. The minimum mean effective stress is discussed herein.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1235-1250
Number of pages16
JournalSoils and Foundations
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Oct


  • 3D discrete element method
  • Accumulated normalized dissipation energy
  • Coordination number
  • Liquefaction behavior
  • Love-wave strain conditions
  • Minimum mean effective stress
  • Multidirectional loading condition
  • Surface waves


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