Comparison of loudness functions suitable for drawing equal-loudness-level contours

Hisashi Takeshima, Yôiti Suzuki, Kenji Ozawa, Masazumi Kumagai, Toshio Sone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Five kinds of loudness functions were examined to determine a suitable function for drawing equal-loudness-level contours based on experimental data. First, equal-loudness relations were measured between 125-Hz and 1-kHz pure tones from 70 phons down to 5 phons and thresholds of hearing were measured at both frequencies. Then, five model equations expressing the equal-loudness relation were derived from the five loudness functions, and these equations were fitted to the data. The results showed that three of them could well explain the equal-loudness relation down to 5 phons. Among the three functions, the loudness function proposed by Zwislocki and Hellman [J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 32, 924 (1960)] and Lochner and Burger [7. Acoust. Soc. Am., 33, 1705-1707 (1961)] was regarded as the most appropriate function for drawing equal-loudness-level contours, because the number of parameters of the function was fewer than that in the other two and the threshold of hearing could be used for the fitting as a datum of the equal-loudness relation, resulting in a more stable estimation of the parameters of the model equation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61-68
Number of pages8
JournalAcoustical Science and Technology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2003 Mar


  • Equal-loudness-level contour
  • ISO 226
  • Loudness function
  • Pure tone
  • Threshold of hearing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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