Aims: To determine differences in pregnancy outcomes including diabetic complications, maternal and perinatal complications between gestational diabetes mellitus and overt diabetes in pregnancy in Japan. Methods: A multi-institutional retrospective study compared pregnancy outcomes between gestational diabetes mellitus and overt diabetes in pregnancy. We examined pregnant women who met the former criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus and received dietary intervention with self-monitoring of blood glucose with or without insulin. Overt diabetes in pregnancy was defined as ≥2 abnormal values on 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l) and 2-h postprandial glucose ≥200. mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l), or glycated hemoglobin levels ≥6.5% (48. mmol/mol). Results: Data were collected on 1267 women with gestational diabetes and 348 with overt diabetes in pregnancy. Pregestational body mass index was higher (26.2 ± 6.1 vs. 24.9 ± 5.7 kg, P< 0.05) and gestational age at delivery was earlier (37.8 ± 2.5 weeks vs. 38.1 ± 2.1 weeks, P< 0.05) in overt diabetes than in gestational diabetes. Glycated hemoglobin (6.8 ± 1.1% [51. mmol/mol] vs. 5.8 ± 0.5% [40. mmol/mol], P< 0.05) and glucose on 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and prevalence of retinopathy (1.2% vs. 0%, P< 0.05) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (10.1% vs. 6.1%, P< 0.05) were higher in overt diabetes than in gestational diabetes. Pregnancy-induced hypertension was associated with pregestational body mass index, gestational weight gain, chronic hypertension, and nulliparity but not with 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Conclusions: Overt diabetes in pregnancy is significantly associated with maternal complications such as retinopathy and pregnancy-induced hypertension.
- Gestational diabetes mellitus
- Pregnancy outcome