Computational model of card-based cryptographic protocols and its applications

Takaaki MIZUKIy, Hiroki Shizuya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)


Card-based protocols enable us to easily perform crypto- graphic tasks such as secure multiparty computation using a deck of physical cards. Since the first card-based protocol appeared in 1989, many protocols have been designed. A protocol is usually described with a series of some- what intuitive and verbal descriptions, such as "turn over this card," "shuffle these two cards," "apply a random cut to these five cards," and so on. On the other hand, a formal computational model of card-based protocols via abstract machine was constructed in 2014. By virtue of the formalization, card-based protocols can be treated more rigorously; for example, it enables one to discuss the lower bounds on the number of cards required for secure computations. In this paper, an overview of the computational model with its applications to designing protocols and a survey of the recent progress in card-based protocols are presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-11
Number of pages9
JournalIEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jan


  • Card games
  • Card-based protocols
  • Cryptography without com- puters
  • Real-life hands-on cryptography
  • Secure multiparty computations


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