The conditions and mechanism of formation of nano-polycrystalline diamonds directly from graphite and non-graphitic carbon (carbon black, glassy carbon, C 60 and carbon nanotubes) at high pressure and high temperature have been investigated. The onset temperature for diamond formation at P ≥ q 15 GPa is 1500-1600 °C for all carbon materials, although the required temperature conditions for pure polycrystalline diamond are T ≥ q 2200 °C for graphite and T ≥ q 1600 °C for non-graphitic carbon. Polycrystalline diamond forms as a result of simultaneous diffusion and two-step martensitic processes from graphite, whereas it forms only due to diffusion without graphitization or formation of intermediate phases from non-graphitic carbon. Nano-polycrystalline diamonds consisting only of very fine particles(<10nm in size) can be obtained from non-graphitic carbon at T ∼ 1600-2000 °C under pressures ≥15 GPa.
- Direct conversion
- High pressure