Congenic method in the chick limb buds by electroporation

Takayuki Suzuki, Toshihiko Ogura

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Electroporation is a powerful tool with which to study limb development. Limb development, however, remains an intricate series of events, requiring the precise dissection of developmental processes using relevant transgenes. In this review, we describe the anatomy of the limb field as the basis of targeted electroporation, and specific expression vectors are discussed. We share a useful protocol for electroporation of chick limb buds, and the expression pattern of enhanced green fluorescent protein in the limb buds is used to demonstrate relevant embryonic patterning. Finally, useful trouble-shooting techniques are described.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)459-465
Number of pages7
JournalDevelopment Growth and Differentiation
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Aug


  • Chick embryo
  • Electroporation
  • Limb buds
  • Limb field


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