Control of petal shape and floral zygomorphy in Lotus japonicus

Xianzhong Feng, Zhong Zhao, Zhaoxia Tian, Shilei Xu, Yonghai Luo, Zhigang Cai, Yumei Wang, Jun Yang, Zheng Wang, Lin Weng, Jianghua Chen, Leiying Zheng, Xizhi Guo, Jianghong Luo, Shusei Sato, Satoshi Tabata, Wei Ma, Xiangling Cao, Xiaohe Hu, Chongrong SunDa Luo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

190 Citations (Scopus)


Zygomorphic flowers, with bilateral (dorsoventral) symmetry, are considered to have evolved several times independently in flowering plants. In Antirrhinum majus, floral dorsoventral symmetry depends on the activity of two TCP-box genes, CYCLOIDEA (CYC) and DICHOTOMA (DICH). To examine whether the same molecular mechanism of floral asymmetry operates in the distantly related Rosid clade of eudicots, in which asymmetric flowers are thought to have evolved independently, we investigated the function of a CYC homologue LjCYC2 in a papilionoid legume, Lotus japonicus. We showed a role for LjCYC2 in establishing dorsal identity by altering its expression in transgenic plants and analyzing its mutant allele squared standard 1 (squ1). Furthermore, we identified a lateralizing factor. Keeled wings in Lotus 1 (Kew1), which plays a key role in the control of lateral petal identity, and found LjCYC2 interacted with Kew1, resulting in a double mutant that bore all petals with ventralized identity to some extents. Thus, we demonstrate that CYC homologues have been independently recruited as determinants of petal identities along the dorsoventral axis in two distant lineages of flowering plants, suggesting a common molecular origin for the mechanisms controlling floral zygomorphy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4970-4975
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Mar 28
Externally publishedYes


  • Dorsoventral axis
  • Floral development
  • Keeled wings in Lotus
  • LjCYC2
  • Squared standard

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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