Realization of topological superconductors (TSCs) hosting Majorana fermions is a central challenge in condensed-matter physics. One approach is to use the superconducting proximity effect (SPE) in heterostructures, where a topological insulator contacted with a superconductor hosts an effective p-wave pairing by the penetration of Cooper pairs across the interface. However, this approach suffers a difficulty in accessing the topological interface buried deep beneath the surface. Here, we propose an alternative approach to realize topological superconductivity without SPE. In a Pb(111) thin film grown on TlBiSe2, we discover that the Dirac-cone state of substrate TlBiSe2 migrates to the top surface of Pb film and obtains an energy gap below the superconducting transition temperature of Pb. This suggests that a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superconductor is converted into a TSC by the topological proximity effect. Our discovery opens a route to manipulate topological superconducting properties of materials.