It has been proposed that cool temperature-induced chlorosis (CTIC) in Indica cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.) is caused by cell growth and plastid development being impeded at cool temperatures. Since it is well known that the overall rate of transcription of plastid-encoded genes changes dramatically during the early phases of plastid development, in this study we focused on the patterns of expression of these genes. Northern blot analysis revealed that the level of 16S rRNA is decreased in a CTIC-sensitive rice cultivar grown at a cool temperature. The expression of the gene for the β subunit of plasmid RNA polymerase (rpoB) was shown to be somewhat disturbed, particularly in terms of its resuppression under cool conditions. The level of transcripts or proteins of plastid-encoded photosynthetic genes was also decreased in a CTIC-sensitive cultivar at a cool temperature. These results suggest that the temperature-dependent inhibition of the onset of gene expression encoding the transcription/translation apparatus may be primarily involved in the mechanism causing CTIC.