Corrosion of steel bars with respect to orientation in concrete

Tarek U. Mohammed, Nobuaki Otsuki, Makoto Hisada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


Corrosion of steel bars (main steel and stirrup) with respect to the orientation m concrete is presented. A detailed study on macrocell and microcell corrosion of steel bars in concrete was conducted on horizontal and vertical steels, depending on the casting direction. The horizontal steel was divided into top and bottom halves. The study was conducted with chloride ions in concrete. Water-cement ratios (w/c) were 0.5 and 0.7. The electrochemical investigations, microscopic and physical observations of steel bars were performed. The laboratory investigations were verified with the long-term (23 year) exposure investigations on reinforced concrete beams. The study also focused on the influence of stirrup on macrocell formation of main steel, and corrosion of plain and deformed steel bars. The study concludes that orientation of steel bars has a significant influence on macrocell and microcell corrosion of steel bars in concrete. Formation of gaps under the horizontal steels cause significant corrosion. Stirrups play an important role in increasing macrocell corrosion of main steel. The deformed bar corroded more than the plain bar.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)154-159
Number of pages6
JournalACI Materials Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1999 Mar 1
Externally publishedYes


  • Corrosion
  • Reinforcing steels (bars)
  • Water-cement ratio

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Materials Science(all)


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