Cortical changes following spinal cord injury with emphasis on the nogo signaling system

Toshiki Endo, Teiji Tominaga, Lars Olson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


After spinal cord injury, structural as well as functional modifications occur in the adult CNS. Sites of plastic changes include the injured spinal cord itself as well as cortical and subcortical structures. Previously, cortical reorganization in response to sensory deprivation has mainly been studied using peripheral nerve injury models, and has led to a degree of understanding of mechanisms underlying reorganization and plastic changes. Deprivation or damage-induced CNS plasticity is not always beneficial for patients, and may underlie the development of conditions such as neuropathic pain and phantom sensations. Therefore, efforts not only to enhance, but also to control the capacity of plastic changes in the CNS, are of clinical relevance. Novel methods to stimulate plasticity as well as to monitor it, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively, may be useful in diverse clinical situations such as spinal cord injury and stroke. Here, human and animal studies of spinal cord injury are reviewed, with special emphasis on the contribution of the Nogo signaling system to cortical plasticity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)291-299
Number of pages9
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Jun


  • CNS plasticity
  • Cortical reorganization
  • FMRI
  • Nogo
  • Spinal cord injury


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