The mid-Cretaceous period is one of the warmest climate periods in the history of Earth. Although the long-term (>lmy) warming trend during mid-Cretaceous is considered to have caused by activated volcanism in mid-Ocean ridges, increased volcanic activities in subduction zones also may have contributed to global warming during 100-80 Ma. On the other hand, emplacements of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) during mid-Cretaceous induced transient rapid warming (<lmy) through outgassing of volcanic C02. Such rapid warming may have resulted in elevation of primary productivity and expansion of anoxia in the global oceans (Oceanic Anoxic Events: OAEs) through the enhancement of weathering and continental run-off. Recent 1870s/1880s isotope stratigraphies and U-Pb ages in the Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) interval revealed that the activity of LIPs preceded the OAE2 by 300 kilo years.
- Greenhouse climate