Damage and reconstruction after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2011 tohoku tsunami

Anawat Suppasri, Abdul Muhari, Prasanthi Ranasinghe, Erick Mas, Fumihiko Imamura, Shunichi Koshimura

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

4 Citations (Scopus)


The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was one of the world’s worst tsunamis and caused devastating damage in many Asian countries. Then, in 2011, Japan was hit by a tsunami that was generated by the greatest earthquake in the country’s history. This paper discusses the damage caused by these tsunamis and subsequent reconstruction. Introduced first are the experience gained and lessons learned for future tsunami mitigation, such as tsunami awareness, proper evacuation building and the memorial parks created in the countries affected by the 2004 tsunami (Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Thailand). Second, human casualties and building damage are discussed using fatality ratios and fragility curves, respectively. These analyses show that experience and awareness help reduce human casualties in the Sanriku area, and wooden houses damaged by the 2011 tsunami fared better than in previous historical events. The damage by the 2011 tsunami to structures designed to protect against tsunamis is summarized. Most of these structures could not withstand and protect from the tsunami because they were not designed for such a large tsunami as expecting of such great event. Finally, examples of ongoing reconstruction in Japan are introduced. Most reconstruction efforts were planned after considering the lessons learned from the tsunami’s impact, and the towns in question are now strengthening their disaster prevention-related plans to be better prepared for future tsunamis.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research
PublisherSpringer Netherlands
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Publication series

NameAdvances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research
ISSN (Print)1878-9897
ISSN (Electronic)2213-6959


  • Disaster mitigation
  • Disaster reduction
  • Reconstruction
  • The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami
  • The 2011 Great East Japan tsunami

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Economic Geology
  • Computers in Earth Sciences
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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