Although gemcitabine is the most effective chemotherapeutic agent against pancreatic cancer, a growing concern is that a substantial number of patients acquire gemcitabine chemoresistance. To elucidate the mechanisms of acquisition of gemcitabine resistance, we developed gemcitabine-resistant cell lines from six human cancer cell lines; three pancreatic, one gastric, one colon, and one bile duct cancer. We first analyzed gemcitabine uptake using three paired parental and gemcitabine resistant pancreatic cancer cell lines (PK-1 and RPK-1, PK-9 and RPK-9, PK-59 and RPK-59) and found that uptake of gemcitabine was rapid. However, no DNA damage was induced in resistant cells. We further examined the microarray-based expression profiles of the cells to identify genes associated with gemcitabine resistance and found a remarkable reduction in the expression of deoxycytidine kinase (. DCK). DCK is a key enzyme that activates gemcitabine by phosphorylation. Genetic alterations and expression of . DCK were studied in these paired parental and derived gemcitabine-resistant cell lines, and inactivating mutations were found only in gemcitabine-resistant cell lines. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of . DCK in the parental cell lines yielded gemcitabine resistance, and introduction of . DCK into gemcitabine-resistant cell lines invariably restored gemcitabine sensitivities. Mutation analyses were expanded to three other different paired cell lines, DLD-1 and RDLD-1 (colon cancer cell line), MKN-28 and RMKN-28 (gastric cancer cell line), and TFK-1 and RTFK -1 (cholangiocarcinoma cell line). We found inactivating mutations in RDLD-1 and RTFK-1 and decreased expression of . DCK in RMKN-28. These results indicate that the inactivation of . DCK is one of the crucial mechanisms in acquisition of gemcitabine resistance.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications|
|Publication status||Published - 2012 Apr 27|
- Deoxycytidine kinase (DCK)
- Pancreatic cancer