Decoding higher-order motor information from primate non-primary motor cortices

Toshi Nakajima, Hajime Mushiake, Toshio Inui, Jun Tanji

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


To investigate the involvement of primate non-primary motor cortices in bimanual sequential movements, we recorded neuronal activity in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) while an animal was performing bimanual motor tasks that required two sequential arm movements consisting of either pronation or supination of the right or left arms with delay periods. We also recorded electromyograms (EMGs) from the arm while the animal performed the bimanual task to compare muscle and neuronal activity. This paper focuses on the neuronal activity before the onset of sequential movements. We found that the prime-mover forelimb muscles were selectively active when an impending arm movement involved recorded muscles, but was not dependent on whether the arm movements were bimanual or unimanual. In contrast, we found that neurons in the non-primary motor cortices showed different activity depending on whether the forthcoming sequential arm movements were unimanual or bimanual. Our results suggest that neuronal activity in the SMA and pre-SMA reflects higher-order information about arm use before motor execution. By extracting this type of information, we can use it to control prosthetic arms in a more intelligent manner through a brain-machine interface.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)103-110
Number of pages8
JournalTechnology and Health Care
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2007


  • Brain-Machine Interface (BMI)
  • Higher-order motor information
  • Non-primary motor cortices


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