Detection of cracks with arbitrary orientations in a metal pipe using linearly-polarized circular TE11 mode microwaves

Guanren Chen, Takuya Katagiri, Haicheng Song, Noritaka Yusa, Hidetoshi Hashizume

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


This study proposed a long-range non-destructive pipe inspection approach using linearly-polarized circular TE11 mode microwaves, enabling rapid detection of both axial and circumferential cracks on the inner surface of a metallic pipe. The applicability of the TE11 mode microwaves for crack detection was discussed in the light of the currents induced on the inner surface of a pipe due to the propagation of the TE11 mode microwaves. A dual-bend structured mode converter was designed to propagate linearly-polarized TE11 mode microwaves inside a pipe with a certain inner diameter, based on the theoretical and numerical analysis of mode conversion due to a bend. A 3.5 GHz working bandwidth of the mode converter was achieved with a conversion efficiency of the TE11 mode of over 90%. Experimental verification was conducted using stainless-steel pipes with an inner diameter of 23 mm and a total length of 7 m. An axial and a circumferential slit were introduced to simulate cracks. The experimental results confirmed reflections from both the axial and circumferential slits, indicating that the TE11 mode microwaves are applicable to crack detection. The results also confirmed the correlation between TE11 mode polarization and its detection sensitivity toward slits with different orientations along the circumferential direction. Furthermore, the axial and circumferential slits situated at different longitudinal and circumferential locations in the pipe were successfully detected by orthogonally deploying the mode converter to change the polarization of the TE11 mode by 90°.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102125
JournalNDT and E International
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Oct


  • Crack detection
  • Microwaves
  • Mode converter
  • NDT
  • TE mode


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