Developing and validating the Japanese version of professional attitude scale for nurses

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Aim: We developed and psychometrically tested the Japanese version of the Professional Attitude Scale for Nurses (PASN-J). Background: Nurses must recognize the importance of their professionalism; therefore, it is critical to quantitatively measure nurses’ professional attitudes. Introduction: This instrument validation study was designed to generate an itemized scale and examine its content validity/psychometric testing using a sample of Japanese nurses. Methods: Based on a trait approach focusing on the characteristic traits of the nursing profession, a 59-item draft scale was generated. During November 2017, 2657 nurses from 29 facilities in Japan were surveyed. The questionnaire included demographics, the 59-item draft scale, and a self-report scale of nurses’ professional behaviour and nursing practice ability. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, we evaluated the construct, criterion-related, concurrent, and known-groups validity, and reliability of the PASN-J. Results: Data from 1716 participants were analysed. The analyses yielded a 38-item, 3-factor scale that adequately fit the data. PASN-J scores were positively correlated with nurses’ professional behaviour and nursing practice ability. Conclusion: The 38-item PASN-J has good reliability and validity, making it useful for measuring the current condition of nursing professionalism and evaluating nursing education. Implications for Nursing and Health Policy: This scale can evaluate nursing education and promote nurses’ professionalism. The PASN-J will help identifying the elements of undergraduate nursing education that require further emphasis. Additionally, the PASN-J could facilitate the development of nursing policies to promote professional development in nurses. Ultimately, evaluating nursing education with the PASN-J enhances nurses’ professional attitudes and subsequently improves their quality of nursing, nursing efficiency and patient outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24-33
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Nursing Review
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Mar


  • attitudes
  • instrument validation study
  • Japanese
  • nurses
  • nursing education
  • professionalism
  • scale development
  • trait approach


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