Development and validation of the Expanded Mindful Eating Scale

Yui Kawasaki, Rie Akamatsu, Mika Omori, Masumi Sugawara, Yoko Yamazaki, Satoko Matsumoto, Yoko Fujiwara, Shigeru Iwakabe, Tetsuyuki Kobayashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: To develop and validate the Expanded Mindful Eating Scale (EMES), an expanded mindful eating model created for the promotion of health and sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaire surveys on Ochanomizu Health Study (OHS) was conducted. The survey was provided to 1,388 female university students in Tokyo, Japan. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and a partial correlation analysis were used to confirm construct and criterion validity. Internal consistency of the EMES was confirmed to calculate Cronbach's alpha. Findings: The response rate was 38.7 % (n = 537). Mean BMI was 20.21 ± 2.12, and 18.8% of them were classified as “lean” (BMI < 18.5). The authors listed 25 items and obtained a final factor structure of five factors and 20 items, as a result of EFA. Through CFA, the authors obtained the following fit indices for a final model: GFI = 0.914, AGFI = 0.890, CFI = 0.870 and RMSEA = 0.061. The total EMES score was significantly correlated with BMI, mindfulness, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness and life satisfaction (r = −0.138, −0.315, −0.339, −0.281 and 0.149, p < 0.01, respectively). Cronbach's alpha for all items in this scale was 0.687. Practical implications: The authors suggest the possibility that practitioners and researchers of mindful eating that includes this new concept can use authors’ novel scale as an effective measurement tool. Originality/value: The EMES, which can multidimensionally measure the concept of the expanded model of mindful eating was first developed in this study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)309-321
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance
Issue number4-5
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Aug 28


  • Health of the planet
  • Mindful eating
  • Nutrition education
  • Scale development
  • Sustainability
  • University students


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