Objectives: To develop a scale for assessing "difficulties felt by intensive care unit (ICU) nurses providing end-of-life care" (DFINE). Design and setting: A questionnaire survey of nurses in ICUs at general hospitals in the Kanto region, Japan. Main outcome measures: The scale was evaluated by exploratory factor analysis, calculation of Cronbach's α and test-retest reliability. The Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying Scale (FATCOD-B-J) and the Nursing Job Stressor Scale (NJSS) were used to investigate concurrent validity. Results: Respondents were 224 ICU nurses (response rate, 78%) at 18 hospitals. Five factors comprising 28 items were identified, involving difficulties related to: "the purpose of the ICU is recovery and survival"; "nursing system and model nurse for end-of-life care"; "building confidence in end-of-life care"; "caring for patients and families at end-of-life"; and "converting from curative care to end-of-life care" Cronbach's α for each factor ranged from 0.61 to 0.8. In terms of test-retest reliability, intraclass correlations for each factor ranged from 0.62 to 0.72. "Building confidence in end-of-life care" in DFINE showed a negative correlation with "positive attitudes towards caring for dying patient" in the FATCOD-B-J (r = -0.4). "Nursing system and model nurse for end-of-life care" in DFINE showed a positive correlation with "conflict with other nursing staffs" (r = 0.32) and "conflict with physicians/autonomy" (r = 0.31) in the NJSS. Conclusion: DFINE demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity. However, additional surveys need to be conducted with a larger sample to further characterise the scale.
- Difficulties felt by ICU nurses
- End-of-life care
- Intensive care unit
- Scale development