Development of thermodynamic database for micro-soldering alloys

I. Ohnuma, X. J. Liu, H. Ohtani, K. Anzai, R. Kainuma, K. Ishida

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Recent progress on the database of calculated phase diagrams in micro-soldering alloy systems, which consist of Pb, Bi, Sn, Sb, Cu, Ag, In and Zn, is presented. Experimental determination of phase equilibria was conducted in several binary, ternary and quaternary systems by DSC, EDX and X-ray diffraction techniques. Based on these experiments, as well as on previous data on phase diagrams and thermo-chemical properties such as activity, heat of mixing and enthalpy of formation, the various thermodynamic parameters for describing the Gibbs energies of the different constituent phases were optimized and evaluated by the CALPHAD (calculation of phase diagrams) method. The database provides key information on liquidus and solidus surfaces, isothermal and vertical section diagrams, and mole fractions of the phase constitutions of multi-component soldering alloys. Thermodynamic properties of the surface tension and viscosity of the liquid phase can also be predicted. Moreover, a nonequilibrium solidification process using the Scheil model was simulated. Several phase diagrams of Pb-bearing and Pb-free solders are presented. The database is expected to be a powerful tool and an indispensable resource for the development of new Pb-free solders.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of 3rd Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, EPTC 2000
EditorsCharles Lee, Kok Chuan Toh, Thiam Beng Lim
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)0780366441
Publication statusPublished - 2000
Event3rd Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, EPTC 2000 - Singapore, Singapore
Duration: 2000 Dec 52000 Dec 7

Publication series

NameProceedings of the Electronic Packaging Technology Conference, EPTC


Conference3rd Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, EPTC 2000


  • Bismuth
  • Copper alloys
  • Databases
  • Isothermal processes
  • Optimization methods
  • Solid modeling
  • Thermodynamics
  • Tin alloys
  • X-ray diffraction
  • Zinc


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