Diagnostic pitfalls of hyperprolactinemia: The importance of sequential pituitary imaging

Tomohiro Kawaguchi, Yoshikazu Ogawa, Teiji Tominaga

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11 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The purpose of this study is to confirm whether the serum prolactin cut-off value is definitive to distinguish prolactinoma and non-functioning pituitary adenoma with hyperprolactinemia. We retrospectively reviewed patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma, including gonadotroph cell adenoma, null cell adenoma and prolactinoma who were surgically treated at Kohnan hospital between June 2005 and March 2012. The patients without endocrinological/neurological symptom and with the tumor larger than 40 mm in diameter were excluded. According to previously reported cut-off value of serum prolactin, mild hyperprolactinemia, which is considered non-definitive (border zone) concentration between prolactinoma and non-functioning pituitary adenoma, were defined as 90 - 200 ng/ml. Ninety-five prolactinoma patients and 212 patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma were analyzed. The serum prolactin concentration, tumor size, and clinical characteristics were statistically compared. Results: Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed, indicating that cut-off value of serum prolactin concentration to distinguish between non-functioning pituitary adenoma and prolactinoma was 38.6 ng/ml. Although it was statistically good accuracy (the area under the curve; 0.96, sensitivity; 0.99 and specificity; 0.81), the result did not fit the clinical situation as many false-positive cases (40 of 212, 18.9%) were included. Among them, mild hyperprolactinemia were shown in 9 (4.2%) and 53 (55.8%) non-functioning pituitary adenoma and prolactinoma, respectively. Four of 9 border zone patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma were initially treated with dopamine agonists. Sequential head magnetic resonance imaging revealed no tumor shrinkage in all of them despite serum prolactin concentration was decreased. Surgery was chosen for them 24.6 months in average after the introduction of medication. Conclusions: Non-negligible number of patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma presented unexpectedly high concentration of prolactin, fraught with a potential risk of misdiagnosis. While this equivocal population is not the majority, the prolactin cut-off value is not safely applicable. Especially for the patients with border zone prolactin concentration, meticulous follow up with sequential pituitary imaging is important.

Original languageEnglish
Article number555
JournalBMC Research Notes
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Aug 20


  • Dopamine agonist
  • Hyperprolactinemia
  • Infertility
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Non-functioning pituitary adenoma


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