Dietary reference intakes for Japanese 2010: Protein

Yasuhiro Kido, Fujiko Shizuka, Yoshiharu Shimomura, Takashi Sugiyama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Proteins form the most important structural component of cells that constitute the various types of tissue, such as muscle, skin, and bone. Proteins also function as enzymes and hormones to regulate various metabolic processes in the body. The estimated average requirement (EAR) of protein for both men and women who habitually consume mixed protein was evaluated as 0.72 g/kg body weight/d by nitrogen balance studies as the value to maintain nitrogen equilibrium with high quality protein, revised with digestibility of mixed protein in habitual food intake. The recommended intake of protein for infants is normally based on the adequate intake (AI) standard, which reflects the observed mean protein intake of infants fed principally with breast milk for up to 6 mo of age. The EAR of children aged 1-17 y was estimated by the factorial method, which adds the amount required for protein storage because of growth and protein requirement for maintenance. The EAR of protein in the elderly was calculated by meta-analysis, employing 144 data sets obtained from 5 published reports, with 60 subjects, and was found to be 0.85 g of habitual mixed protein/kg body weight/d. The tolerable upper intake level (UL) of protein must be established based on the health risk caused by excessive protein intake. However, no clear evidence to establish this value is available at present, and therefore, the UL of protein cannot be determined.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S36-S43
JournalJournal of nutritional science and vitaminology
Issue numberSUPPL.
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Apr 30


  • Nitrogen balance studies
  • Protein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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