Disentangling formation of multiple-core holes in aminophenol molecules exposed to bright X-FEL radiation

V. Zhaunerchyk, M. Kamińska, M. Mucke, R. J. Squibb, J. H.D. Eland, M. N. Piancastelli, L. J. Frasinski, J. Grilj, M. Koch, B. K. McFarland, E. Sistrunk, M. Gühr, R. N. Coffee, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, P. Salén, P. V.D. Meulen, P. Linusson, R. D. Thomas, M. LarssonL. Foucar, J. Ullrich, K. Motomura, S. Mondal, K. Ueda, R. Richter, K. C. Prince, O. Takahashi, T. Osipov, L. Fang, B. F. Murphy, N. Berrah, R. Feifel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Competing multi-photon ionization processes, some leading to the formation of double core hole states, have been examined in 4-aminophenol. The experiments used the linac coherent light source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser, in combination with a time-of-flight magnetic bottle electron spectrometer and the correlation analysis method of covariance mapping. The results imply that 4-aminophenol molecules exposed to the focused x-ray pulses of the LCLS sequentially absorb more than two x-ray photons, resulting in the formation of multiple core holes as well as in the sequential removal of photoelectrons and Auger electrons (so-called PAPA sequences).

Original languageEnglish
Article number244003
JournalJournal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Oct 28


  • covariance mapping
  • double core hole
  • multiple ionization processes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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