Distinct roles of C2A and C2B domains of synaptotagmin in the gulation of exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells

Mica Ohara-Imaizumi, Mitsunori Fukuda, Michio Niinobe, Hiroaki Misonou, Ken Ikeda, Takeshi Murakami, Masakazu Kawasaki, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba, Konosuke Kumakura

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67 Citations (Scopus)


Synaptotagmin that contains two repeats of C2 regulatory domains is considered to be involved in neurotransmitter release. To reveal the roles of synaptotagmin in the regulation of exocytosis, we examined the effects of anti-bodies against C2A and C2B domains on Ca2+-evoked catecholamine (CA) release from digitonin-permeabilized adrenal chromaffin cells, resolving the Ca2+-evoked release into ATP-dependent priming and ATP-independent Ca2+-triggered steps. Anti-C2A antibody clearly reduced the ATP-indepen-dent release, suggesting that the C2A domain directly facilitate or promote Ca2+-triggered step, vesicular fusion. In contrast, anti-C2B antibody did not affect Ca2+-evoked release by itself, but significantly increased the spontaneous Ca2+-independent release. In addition, inositol high-polyphosphate series (IHPS) that bind the C2B domain inhibited both the ATP-independent Ca2+-evoked release and the spontaneous release in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition by IHPS was totally reversed by anti-C2B antibody and significantly reversed by high concentration of Ca2+. These results suggest that IHPS binding to C2B domain arrests membrane fusion by presumably preventing interaction of synaptotagmin with phospholipids or with proteins of plasma membrane. Thus, IHPS binding to the C2B domain might keep the docked or primed vesicles away from spontaneous fusion at resting level of intracellular Ca2+. Binding of the increased intracellular Ca2+ to the C2A domain may facilitate or trigger the vesicular fusion by releasing this suppression by IHPS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)287-291
Number of pages5
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1997 Jan 7


  • Ca-triggered fusion
  • Catecholamine release
  • Inositol high-polyphosphate series


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