Immunohistochemistry for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 2 (TRPV2) was performed on human paranasal sinuses. It was found that in the paranasal sinuses, mucous membranes contain PGP 9.5-immunoreactive (PGP 9.5-IR) nerve fibers. Such nerve fibers terminated around large blood vessels as fine varicosities. Isolated PGP 9.5-IR nerve fibers were scattered beneath the epithelium. Glandular tissues were also innervated by PGP 9.5-IR nerve fibers. These fibers were numerous in the maxillary and ethmoid sinuses, and relatively rare in the frontal and sphenoid sinuses. CGRP-IR nerve fibers were common in the maxillary sinus whereas TRPV2-IR nerve fibers were abundant in the ethmoid sinus. They were located around large blood vessels in the lamina propria. Many subepithelial nerve fibers contained TRPV2 immunoreactivity in the ethmoid sinus. CGRP- and TRPV2-IR nerve fibers were very infrequent in the frontal and sphenoid sinuses. In the human trigeminal ganglion (TG), sensory neurons contained CGRP or TRPV2 immunoreactivity. CGRP-IR TG neurons were more common than TRPV2-IR TG neurons. CGRP-IR TG neurons were of various cell body sizes, whereas TRPV2-IR TG neurons were mostly medium-to-large. In addition, human spinal and principal trigeminal sensory nuclei contained abundant CGRP- and TRPV2-IR varicosities. This study indicates that CGRP- and TRPV2-containing TG neurons probably innervate the paranasal sinus mucosae, and project into spinal and principal trigeminal sensory nuclei.
- Calcitonin gene-related peptide
- Paranasal sinuses
- Protein gene product 9.5
- Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V 2
- Trigeminal ganglion