Joint immobilization is commonly used for the treatment of joint injuries and diseases, but it also causes unfavorable outcomes such as joint contracture. The purpose of this study was to examine the morphological changes of the synovial membrane that is suspected as a cause of joint contracture, and localization of type A (macrophage-like) and type B (fibroblast-like) synoviocytes in the capsule after joint immobilization. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Unilateral knee joints were rigidly immobilized at 150 degrees of flexion with internal fixators for 3 days, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks (7 rats/each immobilized group), while 42 rats were sham-operated. Sagittal sections of 5 mum were prepared from the medial midcondylar region of the knee joints and assessed with histological, histomorphometric, and immunohistochemical methods. Adhesions were observed both in the anterior and posterior synovial membranes in the immobilized group after 2 weeks. In the adhesion area, the cells were mainly composed of type A synoviocytes that were positive for CD68 and type B synoviocytes positive for prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit beta. The length of synovial membrane in the immobilized group was significantly shorter than that in the control group after 2 and 4 weeks. After 8 weeks, the adhesion area in the immobilized group became fibrous and hypocellular. The staining intensity of hyaluronic acid-binding protein was increased after 16 weeks. Adhesion and shortening of the synovial membrane and the structural changes of the adhesion area may contribute to the development of joint contracture.