Diversity of gamma-ray burst energetics vs. supernova homogeneity: SN 2013cq associated with GRB 130427A

A. Melandri, E. Pian, V. D'Elia, P. D'Avanzo, M. Della Valle, P. A. Mazzali, G. Tagliaferri, Z. Cano, A. J. Levan, P. Moller, L. Amati, M. G. Bernardini, D. Bersier, F. Bufano, S. Campana, A. J. Castro-Tirado, S. Covino, G. Ghirlanda, K. Hurley, D. MalesaniN. Masetti, E. Palazzi, S. Piranomonte, A. Rossi, R. Salvaterra, R. L.C. Starling, M. Tanaka, N. R. Tanvir, S. D. Vergani

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Aims. Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been found to be associated with broad-lined type-Ic supernovae (SNe), but only a handful of cases have been studied in detail. Prompted by the discovery of the exceptionally bright, nearby GRB 130427A (redshift z = 0.3399), we aim at characterising the properties of its associated SN 2013cq. This is the first opportunity to test the progenitors of high-luminosity GRBs directly. Methods. We monitored the field of the Swift long-duration GRB 130427A using the 3.6 m TNG and the 8.2 m VLT during the time interval between 3.6 and 51.6 days after the burst. Photometric and spectroscopic observations revealed the presence of the type Ic SN 2013cq. Results. Spectroscopic analysis suggests that SN 2013cq resembles two previous GRB-SNe, SN 1998bw and SN 2010bh, associated with GRB 980425 and X-ray flash (XRF) 100316D, respectively. The bolometric light curve of SN 2013cq, which is significantly affected by the host galaxy contribution, is systematically more luminous than that of SN 2010bh (∼2 mag at peak), but is consistent with SN 1998bw. The comparison with the light curve model of another GRB-connected SN 2003dh indicates that SN 2013cq is consistent with the model when brightened by 20%. This suggests a synthesised radioactive 56Ni mass of ∼0.4M. GRB 130427A/SN 2013cq is the first case of low-z GRB-SN connection where the GRB energetics are extreme (E γ,iso ∼ 1054 erg). We show that the maximum luminosities attained by SNe associated with GRBs span a very narrow range, but those associated with XRFs are significantly less luminous. On the other hand the isotropic energies of the accompanying GRBs span 6 orders of magnitude (1048 erg <Eγ,iso< 1054 erg), although this range is reduced when corrected for jet collimation. The GRB total radiated energy is in fact a small fraction of the SN energy budget.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberA29
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jul


  • Gamma-ray burst: general
  • Supernovae: individual: SN2013cq


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