Foreign body giant cells (FBGCs) and osteoclasts are multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs), both of which are formed by the fusion of macrophage-derived mononuclear cells. Osteoclasts are distinct from FBGCs due to their bone resorption ability; however, not only morphological, but also functional similarities may exist between these cells. The characterization and diversity of FBGCs that appear in an in vivo foreign body reaction currently remain incomplete. In the present study, we investigated an in vivo foreign body reaction using an extraskeletal implantation model of hydroxyapatite (HA) with different microstructures. The implantation of HA granules in rat subcutaneous tissue induced a foreign body reaction that was accompanied by various MNGCs. HA granules composed of rod-shaped particles predominantly induced cathepsin K (CTSK)-positive FBGCs, whereas HA granules composed of globular-shaped particles predominantly induced CTSK-negative FBGCs. Plasma, which was used as the binder of ceramic granules, stimulated the induction of CTSK-positive FBGCs more strongly than purified fibrin. Furthermore, the implantation of HA composed of rod-shaped particles with plasma induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive MNGCs in contrast to HA composed of globular-shaped particles with purified fibrin, which predominantly induced CTSK-negative and TRAP-negative typical FBGCs. These results suggest that CTSK-positive, TRAP-positive, and CTSK- and TRAP-negative MNGCs are induced in this subcutaneous implantation model in a manner that is dependent on the microstructure of HA and presence or absence of plasma. Statement of Significance We attempted to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the foreign body reaction induced by the implantation of hydroxyapatite granules with different microstructures in rat subcutaneous tissue with or without plasma components as the binder of ceramic granules. By analyzing the expression of two reliable osteoclast markers, we detected tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated giant cells, cathepsin K-positive multinucleated giant cells, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase- and cathepsin K-negative multinucleated giant cells. The induction of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated giant cells was plasma component-dependent while the induction of cathepsin K-positive multinucleated giant cells was influenced by the microstructure of hydroxyapatite. This is the first study to show the conditions dividing the three kinds of multinucleated giant cells in the foreign body reaction.
- Cathepsin K
- Foreign body giant cell