Although DNA barcoding is a promising tool for the identification of organisms, it requires the development of a specific reference sequence library for sample application. In the present study we developed a Lake Kasumigaura, Japan, zooplankton DNA barcode library to increase the sensitivity of future zooplankton monitoring for detecting lake ecosystem condition changes. Specifically, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) haplotype, i.e., the primary DNA barcode, was examined for each zooplankton taxon. In crustaceans, 37 mtCOI haplotypes were obtained from 99 individuals, representing four and 15 morpho-species of Copepoda and Cladocera, respectively. Comparing these sequences with those in GenBank shows that the lake harbors putative non-indigenous species, such as Daphnia ambigua. In rotifers, 132 mtCOI haplotypes were obtained from 302 individuals, representing 11 genera and one unclassified taxon. The automatic barcode gap discovery (ABGD) algorithm separated these haplotypes into 43 species. Brachionus cf. calyciflorus was divided into five ABGD species, and different ABGD species tended to occur in different seasons. Seasonal ABGD-species succession was also observed within Polyarthra spp. and Synchaeta spp. These seasonal successions were not detected by inspections of external morphology alone. Accepting up to 7% sequence divergence within the same species, mtCOI reference sequences were available in GenBank for three, 13, and 17 species in Copepoda, Cladocera, and Rotifera, respectively. The present results, therefore, reveal the serious shortage of mtCOI reference sequences for rotifers, and underscore the urgency of developing rotifer mtCOI barcode libraries on a global scale.
- DNA barcoding
- Freshwater zooplankton
- Lake Kasumigaura
- Zooplankton monitoring programs