Alterations in breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1), a tumor suppressor gene, increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancers. BRCA1 forms a heterodimer with BRCA1-associated RING domain protein 1 (BARD1) and functions in multiple cellular processes, including DNA repair and centrosome regulation. BRCA1 acts as a tumor suppressor by promoting homologous recombination (HR) repair, and alterations in BRCA1 cause HR deficiency, not only in breast and ovarian tissues but also in other tissues. The molecular mechanisms underlying BRCA1 alteration-induced carcinogenesis remain unclear. Centrosomes are the major microtubule-organizing centers and function in bipolar spindle formation. The regulation of centrosome number is critical for chromosome segregation in mitosis, which maintains genomic stability. BRCA1/BARD1 function in centrosome regulation together with Obg-like ATPase (OLA1) and receptor for activating protein C kinase 1 (RACK1). Cancer-derived variants of BRCA1, BARD1, OLA1, and RACK1 do not interact, and aberrant expression of these proteins results in abnormal centrosome duplication in mammary-derived cells, and rarely in other cell types. RACK1 is involved in centriole duplication in the S phase by promoting polo-like kinase 1 activation by Aurora A, which is critical for centrosome duplication. Centriole number is higher in cells derived from mammary tissues compared with in those derived from other tissues, suggesting that tissue-specific centrosome characterization may shed light on the tissue specificity of BRCA1-associated carcinogenesis. Here, we explored the role of the BRCA1-containing complex in centrosome regulation and the effect of its deficiency on tissue-specific carcinogenesis.
- breast cancer
- centrosome amplification