46 Citations (Scopus)


We present the Kormendy and mass-size relations (MSR) for early-type galaxies (ETGs) as a function of environment at z ∼ 1.3. Our sample includes 76 visually classified ETGs with masses 1010 < M/M Ȯ < 1011.5, selected in the Lynx supercluster and in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey/Chandra Deep Field South field; 31 ETGs in clusters, 18 in groups, and 27 in the field, all with multi-wavelength photometry and Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys observations. The Kormendy relation, in place at z 1.3, does not depend on the environment. The MSR reveals that ETGs overall appear to be more compact in denser environments: cluster ETGs have sizes on average around 30%-50% smaller than those of the local universe and a distribution with a smaller scatter, whereas field ETGs show an MSR with a similar distribution to the local one. Our results imply that (1) the MSR in the field did not evolve overall from z ∼ 1.3 to present; this is interesting and in contrast to the trend found at higher masses from previous works; (2) in denser environments, either ETGs have increased in size by 30%-50% on average and spread their distributions, or more ETGs have been formed within the dense environment from non-ETG progenitors, or larger galaxies have been accreted to a pristine compact population to reproduce the MSR observed in the local universe. Our results are driven by galaxies with masses M ≲ 2 × 1011 M Ȯ and those with masses M ∼ 1011 M Ȯ follow the same trends as that of the entire sample. Following the Valentinuzzi et al. definition of superdense ETGs, ∼ 35%-45% of our cluster sample is made up of superdense ETGs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number130
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Feb 1


  • galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD
  • galaxies: evolution
  • galaxies: formation
  • galaxies: fundamental parameters
  • galaxies: high-redshift


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