Economic and Spatial Integration of Land-Lost Households in Inland China: Evidence from a Survey in Nanchang City

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Many farmers lost their land and resettled in urban areas because of the rapid urban expansion of China. Although many studies have investigated the livelihood conditions of farmers after their resettlement, very little is known about their long-term outcomes. Based on a questionnaire survey, this study investigated the economic and spatial integration of land-lost farmers living in urban areas for more than ten years. Further, this study also examined the association between their economic and spatial integration. Our survey results indicate that the economic and spatial integration of the offspring from land-lost households were low. Although the educational level of the offspring was higher compared to the previous generation, there were still considerable disparities between them and other urbanites. Additionally, although their employment rate was improved, the quality of their occupations was not significantly enhanced, with unskilled or semi-skilled jobs being the most common. Furthermore, nearly half of the offspring reported a relatively low level of spatial integration (still living in the collective resettlement neighborhoods), which is influenced by demographic characteristics, family characteristics, and economic integration. To achieve sustainable urbanization, efforts should be made to improve the employment qualities and the residential mobility of land-lost households.

Original languageEnglish
Article number558
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Jan


  • China
  • economic integration
  • educational attainment
  • generations
  • inequalities
  • land expropriation
  • land-lost farmers
  • spatial integration
  • urbanization


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