Objectives. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are used as a treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus and have also recently been applied to enhance bone quality and density, and increase the expression of bone markers. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a DPP-4 inhibitor on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and related root resorption in a mouse model. Materials and Methods. Mice were randomly divided into three groups: those undergoing OTM with the addition of a DPP-4 inhibitor (30 μg), those undergoing OTM and receiving phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and those without force loading (control group). OTM was achieved by means of a nickel-titanium closed coil spring that moved the first molar in a mesial direction for 12 days. The distance of OTM was measured using silicone impression. Maxillae were removed for histological analysis or real-time PCR analysis. Results. The distance of OTM and the number of osteoclasts were significantly decreased after administration of the DPP-4 inhibitor, which also significantly suppressed the number of odontoclasts and root resorption after OTM. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) were decreased in DPP-4 inhibitor-treated mice compared with those receiving PBS and control animals. Conclusion. The DPP-4 inhibitor inhibited tooth movement and associated root resorption by blocking the formation of osteoclasts and odontoclasts, respectively. It also appeared to inhibit osteoclastogenesis and odontoclastogenesis by suppressing the expression of TNF-α and/or RANKL.