The aim of this study was to assess the effects of irbesartan alone and combined with amlodipine, efonidipine, or trichlormethiazide on blood pressure (BP) and urinary albumin (UA) excretion in hypertensive patients with microalbuminuria (30≤UA/creatinine (Cr) ratio [UACR] <300 mg/g Cr) and upper-normal microalbuminuria (10≤UACR<30 mg/g Cr). This randomized controlled trial enrolled 175 newly diagnosed and untreated hypertensive patients (home systolic blood pressure [SBP]≥135 mmHg; 10≤UACR<300 mg/g Cr of casual spot urine at the first visit to clinic). All patients were treated with irbesartan (week 0). Patients who failed to achieve home SBP ≤125 mmHg on 8-week irbesartan monotherapy (nonresponders, n = 115) were randomized into three additional drug treatment groups: trichlormethiazide (n = 42), efonidipine (n = 39), or amlodipine (n = 34). Irbesartan monotherapy decreased home SBP and first morning urine samples (morning UACR) for 8 weeks (p < 0.0001). At 8 weeks after randomization, all three additional drugs decreased home SBP (p < 0.0002) and trichlormethiazide significantly decreased morning UACR (p = 0.03). Amlodipine decreased morning UACR in patients with microalbuminuria based on casual spot urine samples (p = 0.048). However, multivariate analysis showed that only higher home SBP and UACR at week 8, but not any additional treatments, were significantly associated with UACR reduction between week 8 and week 16. In conclusion, crucial points of the effects of combination therapy on UACR were basal UACR and SBP levels. The effect of trichlormethiazide or amlodipine treatment in combination with irbesartan treatment on microalbuminuria needs to be reexamined based on a larger sample size after considering basal UACR and SBP levels.
- Home blood pressure