Effect of Anterior Glenoid Chondrolabral Defects on Anterior Glenohumeral Stability: A Biomechanical Study

Jun Kawakami, Heath B. Henninger, Tyler W. Knighton, Nobuyuki Yamamoto, Robert Z. Tashjian, Eiji Itoi, Peter N. Chalmers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: It is well known that glenoid osseous defects >13.5% of the glenoid width critically destabilize the shoulder, as do labral tears. Chondrolabral defects often occur with anterior dislocation of the shoulder. It is unclear whether glenoid chondrolabral defects contribute to shoulder stability and, if so, at what size they become critical. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of incremental chondrolabral defect sizes on anterior shoulder stability in the setting of labral deficiency. The hypothesis was that chondrolabral defects ≥13.5% of the glenoid width will decrease anterior shoulder stability. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: This controlled laboratory study tested 12 fresh-frozen shoulders. Specimens were attached to a custom testing device in abduction and neutral rotation with 50-N compression applied to the glenoid. The humeral head was translated 10 mm anterior, anteroinferior, and anterosuperior with the conditions of intact cartilage and labrum and anterior full-thickness chondrolabral defects of 3-, 6-, and 9-mm width. Translation force was measured continuously. Peak translation force divided by 50-N compressive force defined the stability ratio. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance. Results: The anterior stability ratio decreased between the intact state (36% ± 7%) and all defects ≥3 mm (≤32% ± 8%; P ≤.023). The anteroinferior stability ratio decreased between the intact state (52% ± 7%) and all defects ≥3 mm (≤47% ± 7%; P ≤.006). The anterosuperior stability ratio decreased between the intact state (36% ± 4%) and all defects ≥6 mm (≤33% ± 4%; P ≤.006). A 3-mm defect equated to 10% of the glenoid width. There were moderate to strong negative correlations between chondrolabral defect size and stability ratio in the anterior, anteroinferior, and anterosuperior directions (r = –0.79, –0.63, and –0.58, respectively; P ≤.001). There were moderate to strong negative correlations between the percentage of glenoid chondrolabral defect size to the glenoid width and the stability percentage in all directions (r = –0.81, –0.63, and –0.61; P ≤.001). Conclusion: An anterior glenoid chondrolabral defect ≥3 mm (>10% of the glenoid width) significantly decreased anterior and anteroinferior stability. Chondrolabral defect size negatively correlated with stability. Clinical Relevance: To fully restore glenohumeral stability, in addition to labral repair, it may be necessary to reconstruct chondrolabral defects as small as 3 mm (10% of the glenoid width).

Original languageEnglish
JournalOrthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Volume10
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Oct

Keywords

  • Bankart lesion
  • anterior glenohumeral instability
  • glenoid cartilage defect
  • surgical indication

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Effect of Anterior Glenoid Chondrolabral Defects on Anterior Glenohumeral Stability: A Biomechanical Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this