Effect of bottom bubbling conditions on surface reaction rate in oxygen-water system

Nobuhiro Maruoka, Felicia Lazuardi, Hiroshi Nogami, Govind S. Gupta, Shin Ya Kitamura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


In secondary steelmaking, the enhancement of the reaction rate in the low carbon period during the decarburization of steel is considered the most effective method to produce ultralow carbon steel. In a previous study, it was revealed that the surface reaction is dominant during the final stage of the actual refining process. In order to improve the surface reaction rate, it is necessary to enlarge the reaction region, which is usually achieved by increasing the plume eye area. In this study, water model experiments were carried out to estimate the influence of bottom stirring conditions on the gas-liquid reaction rate; for this purpose, the deoxidation rate during the bottom bubbling process was measured. Five types of nozzle configurations were used to study the effect of the plume eye area on the reaction rate at various gas flow rates. The results reveal that the surface reaction rate is influenced by the gas flow rate and the plume eye area. An empirical correlation was developed for the reaction rate and the plume eye area. This correlation was applied to estimate the gas-liquid reaction rate at the bath surface.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)89-94
Number of pages6
JournalISIJ International
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2010


  • Plume eye area
  • Reaction rate
  • Secondary steelmaking
  • Surface reaction
  • Ultralow carbon steel
  • Water model experiment


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