Effect of coating on properties of esthetic orthodontic nickel-titanium wires

Masahiro Iijima, Takeshi Muguruma, William A. Brantley, Han Cheol Choe, Susumu Nakagaki, Satish B. Alapati, Itaru Mizoguchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To determine the effect of coating on the properties of two esthetic orthodontic nickeltitanium wires. Materials and Methods: Woowa (polymer coating; Dany Harvest) and BioForce High Aesthetic Archwire (metal coating; Dentsply GAC) with cross-section dimensions of 0.016 ×0.022 inches were selected. Noncoated posterior regions of the anterior-coated Woowa and uncoated Sentalloy were used for comparison. Nominal coating compositions were determined by x-ray fluorescence (JSX-3200, JOEL). Cross-sectioned and external surfaces were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM; SSX-550, Shimadzu) and an atomic force microscope (SPM-9500J2, Shimadzu). A three-point bending test (12-mm span) was carried out using a universal testing machine (EZ Test, Shimadzu). Hardness and elastic modulus of external and cross-sectioned surfaces were obtained by nanoindentation (ENT-1100a, Elionix; n 5 10). Results: Coatings on Woowa and BioForce High Aesthetic Archwire contained 41% silver and 14% gold, respectively. The coating thickness on Woowa was approximately 10 μm, and the coating thickness on BioForce High Aesthetic Archwire was much smaller. The surfaces of both coated wires were rougher than the noncoated wires. Woowa showed a higher mean unloading force than the noncoated Woowa, although BioForce High Aesthetic Archwire showed a lower mean unloading force than Sentalloy. While cross-sectional surfaces of all wires had similar hardness and elastic modulus, values for the external surface of Woowa were smaller than for the other wires. Conclusions: The coating processes for Woowa and BioForce High Aesthetic Archwire influence bending behavior and surface morphology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)319-325
Number of pages7
JournalAngle Orthodontist
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Mar


  • Coating
  • Hardness
  • Nanoindentation test
  • Nickel-titanium wire
  • Three-point bending test


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