Control of crystal growth leads to highly functional materials with desired morphologies. In this study, the relationship between select additives and the crystal growth of rutile-type titania under hydrothermal conditions using α-hydroxy acids, carboxylic acids, or alcohols as additives was systematically investigated. Without additives, rod-like rutile crystals with average dimensions of 295 nm × 67 nm were formed. Acceleration of the crystal growth was observed and the aspect ratios of the resulting rod-like crystals were found to increase in the presence of the additives. Alcohols promoted crystal growth along the c-axis, but not in the direction to perpendicular to . Carboxylic acids accelerated the overall crystal growth and this increase was more enhanced along the c-axis than that along others. Both effects were observed using α-hydroxy acids. In addition, the present results implied that the size of the hydrocarbon groups in alcohols and α-hydroxy acids appeared to be related to the acceleration of crystal growth along the c-axis. Hydroxy groups may reduce the surface energy of the crystal facets perpendicular to the c-axis by their adsorption on those facets, resulting in the formation of rod-like crystals with high aspect ratio.
- Anisotropic growth
- Functional group effects