Effect of interleukin-4 on orthodontic tooth movement and associated root resorption

Zaki Hakami, Hideki Kitaura, Keisuke Kimura, Masahiko Ishida, Haruki Sugisawa, Hiroto Ida, Saeed Jafari, Teruko Takano-Yamamoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


Summary Objectives: Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a recognized immunomodulatory cytokine that regulates bone homeostasis. However, the influence of IL-4 on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and subsequent root resorption is still unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of IL-4 on tooth movement and its associated root resorption in a mouse model. Materials and methods: The maxillary first molars of four male mice for each experimental group were subjected to mesial force by a nickel titanium coil spring for 12 days. Control mice were not given appliances and injections. Varying doses of IL-4 were injected locally, adjacent to the first molar. Two sets of experiments were designed. The first set was composed of three groups: the control, treatment with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), or 1.5 μg/day of IL-4. The second set was composed of five groups: the control, treatment with 0 (PBS only), 0.015, 0.15, or 1.5 μg/day of IL-4. The distance of OTM was measured and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase positive cells along the loaded alveolar bone and root surface were identified. The root resorption associated with OTM was evaluated by a scanning electron microscope. Results: The amount of OTM and the number of osteoclasts were significantly decreased in the IL-4-treated mice. Moreover, IL-4 significantly suppressed force-induced odontoclasts and root resorption. Conclusion: IL-4 inhibits tooth movement and prevents root resorption in the mouse model. These results suggest that IL-4 could be used as a useful adjunct to regulate the extent of OTM and also to control root resorption.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87-94
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Orthodontics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Feb 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthodontics


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