The corrosion behavior of 28Cr-7Ni-O-0.34N duplex stainless steels in air-saturated 3.5-wt% NaCl solution at pH 2, 7, 10 and 27 °C was studied by the potentiodynamic method. Two types of microstructures were investigated: the as-forged duplex and microduplex (average austenite grain size 5-16 μm) structures. The austenite volume fractions of the tested steels were between 0.35 and 0.64. The nitrogen effect on corrosion behaviors of both duplex and microduplex stainless steels were the same. At pH 2, the corrosion potential increased when the nitrogen content increased, however, corrosion current density as well as corrosion rate decreased. At pH 7 and 10, the effect of nitrogen on corrosion potential and corrosion rate could not be observed. Corrosion potential at pH 10 was lower than at pH 7. Pitting potential increased when the nitrogen content in the tested steels increased at all tested pH. For the nitrogen effect on the passive current density, it seemed that only at pH 2, the average passive current densities reduced when the nitrogen content increased. Nitrogen may have participated in the passive film or has been involved in the reaction to build up passive film. The ammonium formation and nitrogen enrichment at the interface metal/passive film with adsorption mechanism were discussed. The dissolute nitrogen might have combined with the hydrogen ions in solution to form ammonium ions, resulting in increasing solution pH. The steel could then easily repassivate, hence the corrosion potential and pitting potential would increase. However, the ammonium formation mechanism could not explain the decrease of corrosion potential in basic solution. Nitrogen enrichment at the metal/passive film interface with adsorption mechanism seemed to be an applicable consideration in increasing pitting potential. However, this mechanism did not involve the ammonium ion formation. In general, for the duplex and microduplex stainless steels tested, nitrogen increased the general corrosion resistances in acid solution and pitting corrosion resistance at all solution pH. Metallographic observation in both tested duplex and microduplex steels after pitting corrosion at all tested pH revealed that, the corroded structure in the tested steels without nitrogen alloying was austenite, but those with nitrogen alloying was ferrite. Even though ferrite had a higher chromium content than austenite but higher dissolved nitrogen in austenite than in ferrite may have increased the pitting resistance equivalent number (PRE) of austenite to be higher than that of ferrite.
- 28-7 Duplex and microduplex stainless steels
- 3.5 wt% NaCl solution
- Corrosion behaviors